Article created by Priscila Vargas de Oliveira.
“The implementation of the Environmental Education Program for Workers is a mitigating measure required by federal environmental licensing, conducted by IBAMA.”
Brief history of the ESRB:
03/07/2008 – IBAMA approves the PEAT through Official Letter CGPEG / DILIC / IBAMA 217/08.
17/04/2009 – IEMA issues GCA Office (ACGE) 2513 approving the PEAT
General objective of the PEAT: To promote the continuing education of workers involved in exploration and production of oil and natural gas, environmental awareness, encourage good environmental practices and reinforce the importance of occupational safety through transdisciplinary educational processes and knowledge reconnection involving the worker’s SMS themes, stimulating the development of the thinking and autonomy attitudes of the subjects of the educational action.
Specific Objectives: 1) Mobilize Dynamizadores; 2) To diagnose the real needs of the workers’ practices in the thematic areas of SMS; 3) To sensitize the management and dynamizers of the different sectors and hierarchical levels of the company and its contractors; 4) Identify potential dynamizers to actively participate in the training and dissemination of concepts and knowledge in Environmental Education involving the themes of SMS; 5) To train sensitive and capable of disseminating concepts and knowledge in the areas of SMS to the entire workforce; 6) Implement educational initiatives in the areas of SMS, adding them to this Program; 7) Develop, directly and indirectly, training, information and communication instruments that subsidize the set of educational actions in the areas of SMS, along with the workforce with oil and gas exploration.
This program of environmental education of workers aims at meeting the following environmental licensing requirements established by CGPEG / IBAMA:
FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL LICENSING OF PETROLEUM AND GAS
The Federal Environmental Licensing of maritime activities for the Exploration and Production of Oil and Gas is conducted by the General Coordination of Oil and Gas (CGPEG) of IBAMA’s Environmental Licensing Board (DILIC).
There are three main steps in the oil industry maritime chain, which are environmentally licensed by CGPEG. Each of these steps has specific environmental characteristics and impacts and is licensed separately. These are: 1) Maritime Seismic Survey Activity; 2) Drilling Activity of Exploratory Wells; and 3) Production Activity and Flow of Oil and Natural Gas.
In recent years, CGPEG has been developing initiatives for the standardization of procedures for analyzing environmental studies and reports, as well as improving the follow-up of the implementation of environmental mitigation measures required for the granting of licenses. In this context, Technical Note CGPEG / DILIC / IBAMA no. 08/08, entitled “Pollution Control Project: Guidelines for presentation, implementation and reporting in the environmental licensing processes of marine exploration and production Oil and Gas”. This Technical Note has been revised and replaced by Technical Note CGPEG / DILIC / IBAMA n ° 01/11, which seeks a more specific and focused dissemination on the environmental licensing of offshore activities.
The Pollution Control Project (PCP) is one of the measures to mitigate environmental impacts required as an environmental licensing condition for the undertakings involved in the activities that may be submitted to the environmental licensing process at CGPEG. These activities include: Seismic Survey; Drilling; and Production and Drainage. The adopted procedures are aimed at minimizing pollution from waste generation on board, its disposal on land, the disposal of tailings at sea and atmospheric emissions.
Figure 1 – Scheme of processes that involve the generation of solid waste in offshore activities
Solid waste derived from the E & P activities of oil and natural gas involves more than one class of waste, as defined in Article 13 of Law 12305/2010. The Technical Standard NBR-ABNT 10004/2004 establishes the classification of waste for the environment related to its dangerousness, and defines the following classes:
The Technical Note CGPEG / DILIC / IBAMA n ° 01/2011 foresees as forms of final destination of the waste generated by the E & P activity of oil and natural gas in the marine fields: return to the manufacturer, reuse, recycling, reconditioning, re-refining, coprocessing, decontamination , landfill, industrial landfill, land incineration, treatment plant, waste mix and compost. Table 1 presents examples of possible forms of waste disposal according to the ABNT hazard classification. Class I and Class IIA wastes are routed to a wider range of forms of disposal in absolute terms when compared to Class IIB wastes.
Table 1 presents examples of possible forms of waste disposal according to the ABNT hazard classification.
Class I and Class IIA wastes are routed to a wider range of forms of disposal in absolute terms when compared to Class IIB wastes.
Table 1 – Methods of disposal of total waste by class.
The need for Individual Emergency Plans (EIPs) in the environmental licensing processes of the E & P maritime ventures for oil and natural gas was defined in Federal Law 9,966, of April 28, 2000, which “Provides for the prevention, control and the monitoring of pollution caused by the release of oil and other harmful or dangerous substances in waters under national jurisdiction and other measures. ” Article 7, Chapter II of this Law states that “Organized ports, port facilities and platforms, as well as their support facilities, shall have individual contingency plans to combat pollution by oil and hazardous or noxious substances , which shall be submitted to the approval of the competent environmental agency. ”
The guidelines for the elaboration of these ISPs were established by Resolution 293/01 of CONAMA – National Environment Council, revised and revoked by CONAMA Resolution 398/08, which is the normative basis for this matter.
In the case of activities in environmentally sensitive areas, areas with concentration of platforms of the same entrepreneur and areas of new frontiers, an integrated sea oil detection and monitoring system installed in dedicated vessels will be required. For PEIs of new ventures located in sensitive areas, thruster skimmers will be required immediately. Vessels should also be provided with containment barriers and absorbent barriers in order to assist collection operations. In case the barrier used requires blowers, at least two blowers must be placed in the vessel.
SUSTAINABILITY IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY
The term “sustainable” comes from the Latin sustentare (sustain, defend, favor, support, preserve, care).
The most accepted definition for sustainable development is “To meet the needs of the present generation without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their needs.” This definition emerged in the World Commission on Environment and Development, created by the United Nations to discuss and propose means of harmonize two objectives: economic development and environmental conservation.
The quest for sustainable development in the oil industry can be exemplified by the work led by IPIECA / BASD 2012 during Rio + 20 to spread the O & G sector towards a competitive, socially responsible, ethical and sustainable industry. This concept is reflected in excerpts from the message of IPIECA / BASD 2012 *: “Sustainable development is a vision shared by many parties, who now demand long-term actions”, and “The oil and gas industry is an integral partner of this vision, providing energy to feed economic growth by continuously considering its environmental and social impacts. “The concept is also reinforced through the three commitments outlined in this same message:” To meet today’s global energy needs, the oil and gas industry is committed to providing energy through safe, reliable and efficient environmental operations and socially responsible; the oil and gas industry is committed to finding, producing and supplying oil and gas that contribute to economic and social development globally, and the oil and gas industry is committed to the evolution of more sustainable energy sources to address the risks climate change and other environmental and social impacts now, and in the coming decades. ”
* BASD 2012: Business Action for Sustainable Development 2012. Official United Nations Coordinating Group on Business and Industry for the Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio + 20). BASD 2012 is led by international organizations as a temporary coalition of organizations committed to sustainable development: 1) International Chamber of Commerce (ICC); 2) WBCSD and 3) United Nations Global Compact (UNGC), with the Global Oil & Gas Industry Association (IPIECA) representing the oil industry.
The issue of sustainability in the oil industry has become so prominent in recent years that the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) has published the G3.1 version in 2011, a third generation of reporting guidelines in the GRI’s Sustainability Report, and developed guidelines specific to the O & G sector in supplement form to G3.1 (GRI Oil and Gas Sector Supplement). This version addresses some topics considered key in the petroleum sector, among which emissions, effluents and residues.
Waste accumulates at a very fast pace and its generation remains at high levels, but there are solutions to manage the impacts generated with responsibility and sustainability.
Law 12,305 / 2010 establishes the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), setting forth its principles, objectives and instruments, as well as guidelines on integrated management and solid waste management, generators and applicable economic instruments.
Chapter II, Art. 3, Item VII – Environmentally appropriate final destination: waste disposal including reuse, recycling, composting, recovery and energy use or other destinations admitted by the competent bodies of Sisnama, SNVS and Including the final provision, observing specific operational standards in order to avoid harm or risks to public health and safety and to minimize adverse environmental impacts;
Solid waste generation in Brazil has grown more than 26% in the last decade (2005-2015), but the management of the discarded materials continues to present great deficiency. In 2016, the amount collected was 71.3 million tons, which recorded a coverage index of collection services of 91% of the volume generated for the country, a small improvement compared to the year 2015. This fact shows that 7 million of tons of waste were not collected and, consequently, had an inadequate destination. Of the total amount collected, 12.4 million tons are still deposited in dumps, the worst form of possible destination and daily source of environmental pollution, causing several health problems.
The final disposal of municipal solid waste collected showed a worsening compared to the previous year’s index, from 58.7% to 58.4%, or 41.7 million tons sent to landfills.
Waste management on offshore platforms
The most generated waste in offshore units is the organic one, which is crushed and released into the sea, as determined by NORMA (Maritime Authority Standard) and Marpol 73/78 (International Convention to Prevent Sea Pollution). The remaining wastes are plastics, metals, wood, used oil and paper. Batteries, batteries, glass, printer cartridges and health care waste are far less significant.
Each type of waste has a specific destination, according to its risks and characteristics, taking into account the hazard classification established by ABNT / NBR 10.004: 2000 and the color code recommended by CONAMA Resolution 275/2001. All wastes originating from marine units are shipped in support boats to the land, where they are packed separately. In general, such waste goes to recycling, coprocessing, incineration or landfill. Traceability is the responsibility of the support base which subsequently sends the generating company and the contractor the supporting documentation for the final destination, as well as the monthly quantities sent.
According to information from the Navy’s Ports and Coasts Directorate (DPC), there were, before the crisis, a total of 174 units (ships and platforms) in the country. A maritime unit with an average population of 120 employees annually generates 34 tonnes of organic waste, 9 tonnes of common waste (not recyclable), 75 tonnes of plastic, 40.2 tonnes of metal, 13.8 tonnes of wood, 6 tonnes of paper, 1 ton of glass, 14,300 liters of used oil. Batteries, batteries and printer cartridges total approximately 1 ton. These data are based on an average, and it is necessary to consider the type of activity and the seasonality of each operation. Multiplying the values by 174 units, we have very significant numbers that ratify the need for efficient and updated management systems.
The identification of the different types of residues follows CONAMA Resolution 275/2001, which establishes the color code presented in Table 2.
Table 2 – Color code for identification of different types of waste.
|Color code||Type of waste|
|Blue||Paper / Cardboard|
|White||Waste Health Services|
Segregation and storage of waste
A very important issue is proper segregation in the maritime unit. Typically, there are trained staff who do the verification of the waste before putting them in the bags for shipping to land. These teams are made up of lower-level employees in the unit, called “area men,” but when one of these employees is promoted, a new member must be trained. Such rotation makes the system more efficient. A well-trained staff with specific functions to handle solid waste management would reduce the risk of shipping of wrongly conditioned materials. In addition, all employees on board should be made aware of reduced waste generation and waste segregation, as they deliberately end up using the collectors in the wrong way.
The Technical Note CGPEG / DILIC / IBAMA 01/11 (Item II.2) highlights the importance of maintaining this priority of waste management: 1) Generate the minimum possible solid waste, liquid effluents and atmospheric emissions; 2) Recycle as much as possible of landed waste; 3) Proceed to the appropriate final disposal, ie, in accordance with the current legal rules, of all landed and non-recycled waste.
In addition, the National Policy on Solid Waste (Law No. 12,305 / 2010) calls for the non-generation, reduction, reuse, recycling and treatment of waste, as well as environmental disposal of tailings aimed at protecting public health and quality environmental, and stimulating the adoption of sustainable patterns of production and consumption of goods and services, among others.
In general, hazardous solid waste storage should follow the technical standard of ABNT / NBR 12.235: 1992. In special cases, specific methods are adopted. As examples, burned-out fluorescent lamps, after being collected, are packed without danger of breaking in specially crafted wooden crates to prevent them from breaking. These boxes should be marked with orange for hazardous waste as they contain mercury vapor inside. Used batteries and accumulators are packed in specific orange containers for hazardous waste and stored in a segregated manner, following the recommendations defined by the manufacturers. Waste handling operations, when necessary, are carried out with specific personal protection (EPI) or collective (EPC) equipment recommended for the activity.
SEPARATOR OF WATER AND OIL – SAO
In Brazil, the framing of water bodies and the disposal of fluids are regulated by CONAMA Resolution 357/05. The values for control of Oils and Grease Content (TOG) for framing the water produced to be discarded at sea from offshore platforms for oil production were defined in § 4, Article 43. Such resolution was modified by CONAMA Resolution 393 / 07 and, later, CONAMA Resolution 430/11.
The water produced is generated as a by-product of the production of oil and gas during the separation process by which these fluids pass (primary processing) so that they can turn into commercial products. The alternatives usually adopted for its destiny are the discard, the injection and the reuse. In all cases, there is a need for specific treatment in order to meet the environmental, operational or productive demands that will use it as an input. One of the goals of the treatment is the removal of oil, which may be present in the water under free, emulsified (or emulsified) forms and dissolved. Among these three, the oil in the emulsified form is the most worrisome due to the high degree of difficulty in its removal.
Oil is an extremely toxic substance that can lead to the death of marine species such as fish, seabirds, seals, turtles and sea lions. It also affects migratory birds and the local population living around the affected areas. The impacts of pollution can reach the various levels of organization of living beings from the subcellular to the ecosystem.
Environmental impact is any change, advantageous or harmful, in the environment caused by a particular action or activity that affects the quality of soil, water, atmosphere (physical environment), ecosystems, flora, or fauna (biotic environment) or activities such as tourism, fishing or cultural activities (socioeconomic environment).
Oil spills may occur on oil tankers (eg: sea water used in the washing of vessels’ oil tanks), extraction platforms (eg leaks in pipelines), submarine equipment and distribution pipelines , causing enormous damage to the environment.
When the spill / leak occurs in the sea, the oil stays on the surface of the water, forming a dense layer. This prevents the penetration of solar rays, making it difficult to photosynthesize several species of algae. In some cases, the oil can reach the beaches, leaving them unfit for bathers and contaminating extensive strips of sand. In these cases, the entire tourism sector of a region can be affected, bringing economic losses.
When it reaches the mangroves, oil pollutes and contaminates the ecosystem, causing the death of plant and animal species. As mangroves are breeding grounds for certain animal species, their reproduction is also severely affected
The oil is a mixture composed of several chemical substances such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), naphthalenes, phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes (NFD), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (HPA) and phenols, and is classified according to Table 3. Light oils are highly toxic, due to the presence of larger amounts of aromatic compounds, whereas the heavy and dense oils are few toxic, but cause physical recoating effect.
Table 3 – Classification of oil types.
|I||< 0,8||> 45||Leve||~ 24h||1 – 2 dias|
|II||0,80 à 0,85||35 à 45||Leve||~ 24h||3 – 4 dias|
|III||0,85 à 0,95||17,5 à 35||Pesado||~ 72h||5 – 7 dias|
|IV||> 0,95||< 17,5||Pesado||~ 168h||> 7 dias|
Source: ITOPF – Available at http://www.itopf.com
The decontamination of marine waters is, in most cases, a slow and partially efficient process. Once such an environmental disaster has occurred, where large quantities of product are being dumped at sea, with high potential to spread through sea currents and drafts, it is crucial that adequate measures are taken to minimize potential environmental damage. According to Cantagallo (2007), the option for the method to be employed is strongly based on the type of ecosystem impacted, considering its characteristics and sensitivity. It is also linked to the type of oil spilled and the technical factors, such as the cost of the operation, the access and the type of equipment that can be used.
There are a number of techniques and equipment for combating, containing and recovering an oil spill at sea, including in general physical and chemical methods such as containment barriers and skimmers (equipment designed to remove oil from the surface of water using rotating discs and ropes absorbents), chemical dispersants, in-situ firing, pumping, and natural mechanisms such as biodegradation / bioremediation. Absorbent materials are only used for final cleaning.
Due to the difficulties in removing the oil from the sea, often an oil spill results in contamination of the coastal area, generating greater environmental and economic impact. When this occurs, cleaning strategies of these coastal environments should be used. According to the literature, the most frequently used cleaning options are: natural cleaning, manual removal, use of absorbent materials, vacuum pumping, skimmers, water jetting at different pressures, sand blasting, vegetation cutting, situ, trenches, sediment removal, bioremediation and dispersant products.